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Smuggling and trafficking activities can have a significant impact on the lives of people and communities across the world. But how are they organised? Who are the actors – and the networks – operating in, respectively, the smuggling and trafficking market? What are the mechanisms underpinning such markets? And do they differ across countries/routes? This research stream explores such questions in an empirical and analytical way, looking at individual-level interactions, organisational structures and policy responses.  

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